Anti-Racism and Anti-Oppression Pathway

This pathway is  for individuals to learn how racism and oppression lead to the expression of hate in our communities. It then identifies ways to act against hate, starting with practising anti-racism and anti-oppression (ARAO).



An active effort to eliminate all forms of racism.


Strategies and actions that actively challenge existing intersectional inequities and injustices.


A systemic form of oppression based on the social construct of race.

Individual racism
Racial discrimination that stems from conscious or unconscious individual beliefs, attitudes, and actions that perpetuate the ideology that one racial or ethnic group is inherently superior. Individual racism is learned from and influenced by systemic racism and is rooted in the unequal distribution of power between white and racialized people.

Institutional racism
Policies, practices, and dynamics embedded in established institutions (government, religion, education, organizations, etc.) that result in disadvantage or advancement of specific groups of people. These systemic practices normalize racism and may not be obvious.

Structural racism/systemic racism
Structural or systemic racism points to the bigger picture of history, society, culture, institutions, and the economy. Racialized people have been historically left out of the development of society and its systems, resulting in deeply entrenched disadvantages, barriers, and biases. Systemic racism is at the root of large-scale discrepancies between white and racialized people in many areas including income and wealth, health outcomes, homelessness, unemployment, and involvement with the justice system.


The unfair treatment or control of marginalized groups to maintain status, privilege, or power.1


The goal of this work is to eliminate all forms of racism, discrimination
and oppression at all levels, and to redistribute power and equity.

The group in society that holds the most power can create policies, practices, and socialized norms that systematically exploit and marginalize those who do not have power.2 Our goals cannot be accomplished if we do not examine the people and systems of Canada’s confederation, meaning the nature of white supremacy and colonial values.

Change always requires us to reflect, examine and re-imagine a way forward. We will be challenged and feel uncomfortable and at times fear the unknown. Though this may be an uncomfortable topic to approach, we encourage you to embrace this; positive change can occur through the most discomfort.

Anti-racism is an active process of seeing and being in the world with the intention of working to identify, challenge and change the values, structures and behaviours that perpetuate structural racism.

This highlights the idea that racism occurs at all levels of society and manifests itself in both individual attitudes and behaviour as well as formal and unspoken policies and practices within institutions.

In the absence of anti-racism, we (un)consciously uphold aspects of white supremacy, white-dominant culture, and unequitable institutions and societies.

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